Excerpt No. 2

Ascription of Sins to God

“According to some scholars, there are certain things that are undoubtedly evil and abhorrent, such as various forms of wrong and injustice. The intellect would never attribute them to God’s Holy Precinct. Likewise, the Noble Qur’an has declared God to be clear and free from every kind of wrong and injustice in several verses, such as: And your Lord is not in the least unjust to the servants (41:46); Say: Surely Allah does not enjoin indecency (7:28). This contradicts the idea that everything has been created by God. Thus, the idea of universality of creation is subject to this exception which is backed by both rational and transmitted evidence. This means that human actions are created by human beings, but everything else beyond that is created by God, including the essence and effects of things.

“These scholars have further added that if human actions are created by God, then it means that they are beyond human volition, which contradicts God’s entire system of command, prohibition, obedience, disobedience, reward, punishment, sending messengers, revealing scriptures, and enacting divine laws.

“However, these scholars have missed a fine distinction between real matters [which exist as external entities] versus conventional matters [which are our mental constructions]. The latter are things that have no external existence, but they are things that human beings need to conceive (taṣawwur) or confirm (taṣdīq) in order to have a comfortable and functional social life. This means a confusion between existential and non-existential aspects of things. We addressed this subject in our discussion of jabr (compulsion, determinism, predestination) and tafwīḍ (delegation, entrustment) under verses 2:26-27″

Reference: Al-Mizan Eng. vol. 14, pages 79-82